Nepal has improved itself in Human Development Index (HDI), according to United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) report.
Its HDI stands at 0.458, which gives the country a rank of 157 out of 187 countries with comparable data, said the report published today globally.
However, Nepal still ranks in the Low Human Development group among the four — Very High Human Development, High Human Development, Medium Human Development and Low Human Development — groups.
"The HDI of South Asia as a region increased from 0.356 in 1980 to 0.548 at present, placing Nepal below the regional average, the annual flagship publication of the UNDP said, adding that however inequality has dragged Nepal’s overall score. This year's theme of the HDI was 'Inequality and Sustainability.'
The HDI trends tell an important story both at the national and regional level and highlight the very large gaps in well-being and life chances that continue to divide the interconnected world.
It measures the average achievements in a country in three basic dimensions of human development — a long and healthy life, access to knowledge and a decent standard of living. Data availability determines HDI country coverage. To enable cross-country comparisons, the HDI is, to the extent possible, calculated based on data from leading international data agencies and other credible data sources available at the time of writing.
Each year since 1990, the UNDP has been publishing the Human Development Index (HDI), which was introduced as an alternative to conventional measures of national development like level of income and the rate of economic growth.
The index represents a push for a broader definition of well-being and provides a composite measure of three basic dimensions of human development including health, education and income.
By 2050, in an 'environmental challenge' scenario factoring in the effects of global warming on food production and pollution, the average HDI would be 12 per cent lower in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa than would otherwise be the case, the report estimated, adding that bold global action is urgently required for sustainable development, but local initiatives to support poor communities can be both highly cost-effective and environmentally beneficial.
It has also called for a currency transaction tax to help the world’s poorest countries deal with the effects of climate change. “In updated analysis prepared for this report, the North-South Institute estimates that a tax of 0.005 per cent would yield around $40 billion a year,” the annual Report, said, adding that the revenue potential is thus huge.
Half of the malnutrition cases in the world arise from environmental factors, according to the UNDP.
High living standards need not be carbon-fueled and follow the examples of the richest countries, says the Report, presenting evidence that while CO2 emissions have been closely linked with national income growth in recent decades, fossil-fuel consumption does not correspond with other key measures of human development. "Growth driven by fossil fuel consumption is not a prerequisite for a better life in broader human development terms,” it said, adding that investments that improve equity—in access, for example, to renewable energy, water and sanitation, and reproductive healthcare — could advance both sustainability and human development.
The Report has also called for electricity service to be provided to the 1.5 billion people who are now off the power grid. It can be done both affordably and sustainably, without a significant rise in carbon emissions.Overall, this year’s annual human development ranking showed progress made in the quality of life. However, when adjusted against inequalities among the population, there was an overall drop of 23 per cent in the quality of living this year.
Norway, Australia, the Netherlands led this year’s overall index, while the Democratic Republic of Congo, Niger and Burundi came in at the bottom. However, when adjusted for inequalities, some countries fell off their top rankings. The US, for instance, was the fourth best in the index, but only ranked 23rd when adjusted for inequalities.
Human Development Index (HDI) Value
2007 — 0.437
2008 — 0.443
2009 — 0.449
2010 — 0.455
2011 — 0.458
(A composite index measuring average achievement in three basic dimensions of human development — a long and healthy life, knowledge and a decent standard of living. Source: UNDP)